Kinship Terminology. This in turn forged new political entities and identities as well as wider social relations. The chiefs traditionally came from one clan, and each chiefdom had several villages made up of different patrilineal clans. [29], Media related to Acholi people at Wikimedia Commons. ." This is used to present users with ads that are relevant to them according to the user profile. University of Bradford eThesis This thesis is hosted in Bradford Scholars - The University of Bradford Open Access repository. During this time, people were separated from their land for long periods, and many people disappeared or were killed. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. development of chiefdoms seems to have been the ability of rwodi to help With the coming of the ivory and slave trades, and the firearms that accompanied them, conflict became more frequent, more deadly, and more widely spread. 13.4 Organizational Politics - Organizational Behavior This conflict lasted until 2008 and ended with the LRA fleeing to Eastern A typical household consists of a nuclear family (husband, wife, and unmarried children), although aged parents, unmarried siblings, offspring of deceased siblings, or others are often household members as well. It refers to people known locally as Luo Gang. At first fighting against the insurgence of the army of the central government, the gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Following the Hansen, Holger B., and Michael Twaddle, eds. . In such a context, the land rights of those with the least power widows, the disabled, the elderly were very insecure. "Kony's Message: A New Koine?". Batswana are divided into a number of subgroups or "tribes": Bahurut, Shona The Central Lwo during the Aconya. in Acholi since the mid-1980s) have led to a breakdown of any meaningful Identification. The LRA received much of its financial, logistical and military support from the Khartoum government in neighbouring Sudan. Due to a changing economy, after the 1950s, fewer Acholi was recruited to the armed forces but continued to be associated with them in popular mythology and stereotypes. However, the date of retrieval is often important. The EU's External Democracy Action in a New Geopolitical Reality: Policy Brief. These cookies ensure basic functionalities and security features of the website, anonymously. southern parts of the country. This cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. "Acholi point to the most recent violent conflict was the overthrow of the Okello-led government by the "[20] They have continued to work to end the war through negotiation. Aristotle wrote that politics stems . The political ramifications for Uganda, however, were severe. Analytical cookies are used to understand how visitors interact with the website. B. K. (1994). Our editors will review what youve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. "[15] Although they were believed to have supernatural powers, the chiefs ruled through a Council of Clan Elders, so they never ruled singlehandedly. The Fipa are a Bantu-speaking people of southwestern Tanzania in East-Central Africa. 2008. They keep sheep and cattle but are not as committed to pastoralism as some other Nilotic peoples are. This cookies is set by Youtube and is used to track the views of embedded videos. With independence, the Acholi remained marginal within the framework of Uganda as a whole, with one crucial exception: their disproportionate numbers in the police and army. But a chief's territory seldom corresponded to any pre-colonial entity, while his wide-ranging executive and judicial powers were a complete novelty. Common synonyms for this type of organization are "interest groups," "pressure groups," and . The thesis will centre not on the inevitability of the war, but will instead focus on the political processes that preceded it. morphed into Chuuli, before finally becoming Acholi as it was applicated with the pronoun Acholi live in Northern Uganda, in the districts Kitgum, Pader and Gulu. The government of Uganda has responded to the conflict by adopting both military and general amnesty strategies. This belief underlies the customary land tenure rule that prohibits women from having rights to land independent of their relationship with their father or husband. LRA, after losing support from the local population, also turned on the people of northern In precolonial Acholi, lineage heads and elders were most responsible for social control, though one of the attractions that assisted the development of chiefdoms seems to have been the ability of rwodi to help settle disputes that involved more than one lineage. 20- in the Western Nilotic branch of Nilo-Saharan. Bride-wealth has varied over time but has usually included iron objects, domestic animals, and, in the twentieth century, money. But when Idi Amin overthrew Obotes first spell in power, and when Yoweri Musevini ousted Okello, the Acholi paid heavily for their allegiances. The presumed nominal forebears of the present-day Acholi group migrated South to Northern Uganda from the area now known as Bahr el Ghazal in South Sudan by about 1,000 AD. [28], In 2012 the American charity Invisible Children produced a documentary about the LRA. Identification. the late seventeenth to the early twentieth centuries. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Numbering more than one million at the turn of the 21st century, they speak a Western Nilotic language of the Eastern Sudanic branch of the Nilo-Saharan family and are culturally and historically related to their traditional enemies, the neighbouring Lango. While rwodi, The Southern Lwoo language group "Land Tenure in Acholi." In war, the men used spears and long, narrow shields of giraffe or ox hide. members of royal lineages, and lineage heads all seem to have been Dholuo, which is spoken in in the West of Kenya. Political Organization. During Uganda's colonial period, the British encouraged political and economic development in the south of the country, in particular among the Baganda. This cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. others who benefited from the new dispensation, including collaborators London: Oxford University Press. jok ). PUBLISHED: 27/01/2023. "In 1997, the Catholic, Anglican, Muslim, and later the Orthodox religious leaders of Acholi formalized their increasing cooperation on peace issues by setting up the Acholi Religious Leaders' Peace Initiative (ARLPI). Traditionally, a grave is dug as soon as a person has died, following which a small and brief ceremony is held in the deceased's house prior to burial. A rebellion in 1911 in response to the British confiscation of Acholi guns was the last large-scale conflict in Acholi until Amin came to power in 1971. somewhat better off than others before the latter part of the nineteenth alongside the other Luo groups in Uganda and Kenya following several waves of migration The cookie is used to store information of how visitors use a website and helps in creating an analytics report of how the website is doing. In Changing Uganda: The Dilemmas of Structural Adjustment and Revolutionary Change, edited by Holger B. Hansen and Michael Twaddle, 162-177. 1orthern Uganda or Acholiland is formally known as the Acholi sub-region, an area inhab N - ited primarily by speakers of the Acholi language, whom I refer to as the Acholi. Kuturia Housein fired the first gun shot on Acholiland who had never seen and NRA in 1986. Abstract The aim of this thesis will be to decipher why Acholi ethnic identity remained such a critical political tool in late and post-colonial Uganda, from 1950-1985, just before the outbreak of civil war in 1986. million first language speakers at the time. When Britain established its rule during the early twentieth century, both ideological predisposition and practical utility prompted the colonizers to consider the Acholi a "tribe" and to administer the area as a "tribal" unit. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau. This cookie is set by The Acholi are proud and loud, but have been exposed as a group without a uniting leadership. Apoko, Anna (1967). deaths. common identity had already formed prior to that during the 18th century. political organisation of the acholi During Obote's first term as president, and especially during his David Oyite-Ojok | Military Wiki | Fandom Notable among the Acholi soldiers who made the ranks were Gen. Tito Okello-Lutwa, Brig. It was not until 1995 that a constitutional reform recognized such cultural leaders, but they have not been fully restored to previous powers, as so much of society has changed. have often limited or prevented serious conflict, especially among Much of that hierarchy continued into the independence era. Verona: Editrice Nigrizia. Uganda Journal 3(3): 175-202. collective identity evolved, and a common language (Luo) spread. (Atkinson, 2011 During Obote's first term as president, and especially during his second term, Acholi soldiers played key roles in the massive conflict in other parts of Uganda, where hundreds of thousands of peoplemany of them innocent civilianslost their lives; from the mid-1980s into the 1990s, Acholi was the scene of similar levels of conflict. According to the latest census, there are 1.47 million ethnic Acholi in Uganda, amounting to 4.4 per cent of the total population. The Subsistence and Commercial Activities. Museveni has held absolute power since, surviving unrest, civil war, and numerous attempts at coups. Dholuo When not disrupted or dispossessed by the violence endemic since the mid-1980s, most Acholi remain primarily mixed farmers. PDF "Acholi Youth Are Lost": Young, Christian and (A)political in Uganda It is part of the Southern Lwoo languages named Luo. What attitudes towards and beliefs about language, linguistic competence and teaching languages do student teachers hold at the start of their teacher education.. How, It addresses the practices used for managing linguistic diversity in downstream relationships, particularly focusing on the role of language nodes at the, LINGUISTIC MEANING AND KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION IN AUTOMATIC UNDERSTANDING OF NATURAL LANGUAGE LINGUISTIC MEANING AND KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION IN AUTOMATIC UNDERSTANDING OF NATURAL LANGUAGE, Linguistic and Cognitive Measures in Arabic-Speaking English Linguistic and Cognitive Measures in Arabic-Speaking English Language Learners (ELLs) and monolingual children with and, Recently, Wang, Teng, and Chen (2015) conducted a study to examine students attitude toward the use of iPad in English Vocabulary Learning. Hunting tracts are owned by clans. All affines, meanwhile, are known as "mother." Langlands, B. W. (1971). ETHNONYMS: Mende (Men-day), Mendes, Huro, Wuro Malandra, Alfred (1939). outsiders: The Arabs had established a killing government on Acholi, some of the chiefs who Location. Dances and other activities surrounding spirit possession seem to have been originally introduced from Bunyoro in the early nineteenth century and then became more wide-spread during the tumultuous years of the latter part of that century. With the coming of the ivory Identification and Location. into the 1990s, Acholi was the scene of similar levels of conflict. The earliest modern African political organization in Kenya Colony sought to protest pro-settler policies, and increased taxes on Africans and the despised Kipande (Identifying metal band worn around the neck). 17 de fevereiro de 2022 / Category . Vincent (2012), a Gulu-based (UNHCR, 2012). He had established the Equatorial Province in 1870 the northern parts remained ignored for a long time. Political Organization. The Acholi have a modified Iroquois kinship-terminology system, reflecting Acholi's patrilineal and patrilocal ideology. journalist who created an account of the history and traditions of the Acholi, wrote that the The PEPFAR Uganda 2023 Science Summit on HIV and TB: Following the Science and Sustaining the Gains as PEPFAR Turns Twenty This report is a record of the virtual summit organized by the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Uganda for its stakeholders; Uganda Ministry of Health (MoH) including its Public Health Fellowship Program (PHFP), implementing partners, and . With colonial rule came a new hierarchy of chiefs, clerks, and policemen, all under the authority of a district commissioner. Since Ugandan forces pushed the LRA out of Northern Uganda, the majority were able to return to their homes, though without much in the way of government support. The Song of Lawino, one of the most successful African literary works, was written by Okot p'Bitek, published in 1966 in Acholi, and later translated to English. Tito and Bazilio, who were Acholi by tribe, fled the country into exile. As they have for centuries, Acholi farmers rely mainly on iron hoes and other hand tools. Latigo (2006), "Northern Uganda", p. 90-92, Branch, A. Doom, Ruddy and Koen Vlassenroot. Their traditional communities were organised hamlets of circular huts with high peaked roofs, furnished with a mud sleeping-platform, jars of grain and a sunken fireplace. Encyclopedia of World Cultures. 30. While rwodi, members of royal lineages, and lineage heads all seem to have been somewhat better off than others before the latter part of the nineteenth century, social stratification appears limited, owing primarily to both limited wealth in the society and redistribution. [17] Most of the LRA returnees, numbering 12,000, underwent nyono tong gweno ('stepping on the egg') after returning to their home villages, to help restore them to home. Before the late seventeenth century, Luo speakers were limited to only a few peripheral areas of Acholi. The conflict had dramatic effects on the local Orientation There were the spirits of known relatives, especially lineage ancestors; a second type was the nonancestral jok of the chiefdom as a whole. . PUBLISHED: 30/01/2023. Uma, F. K. (1971). The third group of spirits were those of unknown persons and dangerous beasts; these were hostile, personified as ghosts, believed to cause sickness and other misfortunes, and dealt with by means of spirit possession. Historically, the most important public ceremonies were probably those associated with birth, planting, harvesting, and the killing of a large animal or another human being. Kitgum, Pader and Gulu, the three districts of the Acholi sub-region, each established peace forums for continuing discussions. Certain rwodi and interpreters began to accumulate some of the new wealth brought into Acholi by international trade, and descendants of some of these men used their inherited wealth to build up prominent twentieth-century families. Changing Uganda: The Dilemmas of Structural Adjustment and Revolutionary Change. Following the latest redrawing of the administrative divisions, it contains seven districts; Agago, Amuru, Gulu, Kitgum, Nwoya, Lamwo and Pader. More At the same time Joseph Kony formed his own rebel group, interpreters began to accumulate some of the new wealth brought into Uganda - Government and society | Britannica occur, however, it was usually limited in scope, with relatively few Girling, F. K. (1960). Dwyer, John O. All of these early inhabitants were ironworking mixed farmers, organized into localized patrilineal lineages or, in some cases, into temporary groupings of two to four such lineages. Each clan was administered by a council of elders chosen because of their outstanding military performance and because of their senior position in the community. southern part of the country relatively young. Orientation last large-scale conflict in Acholi until Amin came to power in 1971. connected and intertwined chiefdoms. ACHOLI PEOPLE: THE FAMOUS EAST AFRICAN SPIRITUALLY AND - Blogger [26], In 2016, the multi award-winning film, A Brilliant Genocide was produced. He understood the emergence of an Acholi identity as a final step in a social process that did not The activities of the LRA have been devastating within Acholiland (though they spread also to neighbouring districts and countries). Within the Cite this article tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. represents an income that averages several times that of a member of the The Acholi dialect is a Western Nilotic language, classified as Luo (or Lwo). Mass meetings were organized separately by Luo people in Kavirondo and the Kikuyu people in Nairobi. This included both agricultural and hunting land. Crazzolara, J. P. (1950-1954). Uganda Journal 19(1): 57-61. Uganda's current army, various local rebel groups (some headed by apocalyptic "prophets" such as Alice Lakwena), and heavily armed Karamojong raiders have all raped, looted, killed, and destroyed, making any kind of normal life in Acholi impossible. ." Localized lineages have been the fundamental social units in Acholi, sociopolitical units: lineages at the parish level; chiefdoms at the Army membership has also supplied a distinct, if largely negative, socializing influence on many Acholi young men. 102-104, Southern Sudan and the Government of the Republic of the South Sudan, State Minister for Foreign Affairs (International Affairs),, "2014 Uganda Population and Housing Census Main Report",, James Ojent Latigo, Chapter 4: "Northern Uganda tradition-based practices in the Acholi region, 1. The combination of the two events, have put pressure on the LRA to lay down its arms. areas of the Buganda Kingdom and their main trading routes extended eastwards towards Kenya, Even in this . The main point of contact